Adverse Effects/ Untoward Side Effects of Nasal Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP) Therapy




1. HoffsteinV, Viner S, Mateika S, et al. Treatment of obstructive sleep apnea with nasal continuous positive airway pressure: patient compliance, perception of benefits, and side effects. Am Rev Respir Dis 1992;145:841-5.

2. Pepin JL, Leger P, Veale D, et al. Side effects of nasal continuous positive airway pressure in sleep apnea syndrome: study of 193 patients in two French sleep centers. Chest 1995; 107: 375-81.

3. Kribbs NB, Pack AI, Kline LR et al. Objective measurement of patterns of nasal CPAP use by patients with obstructive sleep apnea. Am Rev Respir Dis 1993;147:887-95.

4. Smith PL, Hudgel DW, Olson LG, et al. Indications and standards for the use of nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) in sleep apnea syndromes. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1994; 150:738.

5. Strumpf DA, Harrop P, Dobbin J, et al. Massive epistaxis from nasal CPAP therapy. Chest 1989;95:1141.

6. Chokroverty S (ed). Sleep Disorders Medicne. Boston: Butterworth-Heinemann; pp355-84.

7. Prosise GL, Berry RB. Oral-nasal continuous positive airway pressure as a treatment for obstructive sleep apnea. Chest 1994;106:180-6.

8. Sanders MH, Kern NB, Stiller RA, et al. CPAP therapy via oro-nasal mask for obstructive sleep apnea. Chest 1994; 106:180-6.

9. Nino-Murcia G, McCann CC, Bliwise DL, et al. Compliance and side effects in sleep apnea patients treated with nasal continuous positive airway pressure. West J. Med 1989;150:165-9.

10. Richards GN, Cistulli PA, Ungar RG, et al. Mouth leaks with nasal continuous positive airway pressure increases nasal airway resistance. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 1996; 154:182-6.

11. Martins de Araujo MT, Veira SB, et al. Heated humidification of face mask to prevent upper airway dryness during continuous positive airway pressure. Chest 2000;117:142-7.

12. Edinger JD, Radtke RA. Use of in vivo desensitization to treat a patient’s claustrophobic response to continuous positive airway pressure treatment in sleep apnea syndrome. Chest 1994; 105:429-33.

13. Jarjour NN, Wilson V. Pneumocephalus associated with nasal continuous positive airway pressure in a patient with sleep apnea syndrome. Chest 1989;96:1425-6.

14. Kramer NR, Fine MD, McCrae RG, et al. Unusual complications of nasal CPAP: subcutaneous emphysema following facial trauma. Sleep 1997;20:895-7.

15. Meurice J-C, Mergy J, Rostykus C, et al. Atrial arrhythmia as a complication of nasal CPAP. Chest 1992;102:640-2.

16. Alvarez-Sala R, Diaz S, Prados C, et al. Increase in intraocular pressure during nasal CPAP. Chest 1992; 101:1477.

17. Stauffer JL, Fayter NA, McClure BJ. Conjunctivitis from nasal CPAP apparatus. Chest. 1984;86:802.

18. Sin DD, Mayers I, Man GCW et al. Long-term compliance rate to continuous positive airway pressure in obstructive sleep apnea. Chest. 2002; 121:430-435.

19. Pepin JL, Kreiger J, Rodenstein D, et al. Effective compliance during the first 3 months of continuous positive airway pressure. A European prospective study of 121 patients. Am J. Respir Crit Care Med 1999;160: 1124-1129.

20. Engleman HM, Asgari-Jirhandeh N, McLeod AL, et al: Self-reported use of CPAP and benefits of CPAP therapy: A patient survey. Chest 1996; 109: 1470-1476.

21. McArdle N, Devereux G, Heidarnejad H, et al. Long term use of CPAP therapy for sleep apnea/hypopnea syndrome. Am J. Respir crit. Care Med 1999; 159: 1108-1114.

22. Chervin R, Thent S, Bassetti, et al. Compliance with nasal CPAP can be improved by simple interventions. Sleep 1997; 20: 284-289.

23. Ballard RD, Gay PC, Strollo PJ. Interventions to improve compliance in sleep apnea patients previously non-compliant with continuous positive airway pressure. J. Clin Sleep Med 2007; 3(7): 706-712.

24. Zozula R, Rosen R. Compliance with continuous positive pressure therapy: assessing and improving treatment outcomes. Curr Opin Pulm Med 2001; 7: 391-8.

25. Stepnowsky C, Moore P. Nasal CPAP treatment for obstructive sleep apnea: developing a new perspective on dosing strategies and compliance. J. Psychosomatic Research. 2003; 54:599-605.

26. Vaidyanathan S, Williamson P, Clearie K, Khan F, Lipworth B. Fluticasone reverses oxymetazoline-induced tachyphylaxis of response and rebound congestion. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2010 Jul 1; 182(1):19-24.

27. Sawyer AM, Gooneratne N, Marcus CL, Ofer D, Richards KC, Weaver TE. Sleep Med Rev, 2011 December, 15(6): 343-356.

Leave a Reply